such that the antioxidants do not penetrate the skin. Ascorbic acid for example,
the gold standard among antioxidants,
must be un-ionized to get into the skin.
Its pH must be acidic (below 3. 5) and in
concentrations that are significant (above
10%) to be effective against the UV and
IR damage. 10 Most formulations on the
market do not fit these criteria for effective antioxidant protection. Armed with
this clinical evidence about the damaging effects of solar radiation, the use of a
broad-spectrum sunscreen product with
efficient UVB and photostabilized UVA
filters is a user’s first line of defense.
Moreover, a powerful antioxidant regimen that adequately penetrates the skin
delivered in reasonable effective concentration is highly recommended.
In the future, additional ingredients
that provide a line of defense from both the
UV and IR spectrum will be formulated in
all standard sunscreen products. Designing
new sun safety products that can address
these new revelations from research will
improve significantly the protection we
currently provide to the consumer. •
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Exposure: What Molecular Photo Dermatology Tells
Us about Its Good and Bad Sides” J. Invest. Dermatol.
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2. Schieke S, Stege H, Kurten V , Grether-Beck
S, Sies H and Krutmann J. (2002) “Infrared-A radiation-induced matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression is
mediated through extracellular signal regulated kinase
1/2 activation in human dermal fibroblasts.” J. Invest.
3. Schroeder P., Lademann J., Darvin
M., Bruhnke S. and Krutmann J. (2008)” Infrared radiation-induced matrix metalloproteinase in human
skin: implications for protection.” J Invest Dermatol
4. Kim MS, Kim YK, Cho KH and Chung JH.
(2006) “Regulation of type I procollagen and MMP-1
expression after single or repeated exposure to infrared radiation in human skin.” Mech. Ageing Dev.
5. Schroeder P, Calles C, Benesova T, Macaluso F,
and Krutmann J. (2010) “Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation—effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced
skin damage.” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 23: 15–7
6. Schiek, S., Schroeder,P. and Krutmann,
J., “Cutaneous effects of Infrared radiation”,
Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. (2003),
7. Cho S, Shin MH, Kim YK, Seo JE, Lee YM, Park
CH, Chung JH. ,“Effects of Infrared radiation and heat
on human skin aging in vivo”, J. Invest. Dermatol.
Symposium Proceedings (2009), 14: 15-19.
8. Kim HH, Lee MJ, Lee SR, Kim KH, Cho
KH, Eun HC and Chung JH. (2005)“Augmentation of
UV-induced skin wrinkling by infrared irradiation in
hairless mice.” Mech. Ageing Dev. 126:1170– 7.
9. P. Schroeder, C. Calles, Dipl.-Biol, J. Krutmann,
“Prevention of Infrared-A Radiation Mediated
Detrimental Effects in Human Skin”, Skin Therapy
10. Pinnel, S. et al.,(2001) Dermatol. Surg.,