another on multicultural hair care technology moderated by Colleen Rocafort
The in-vitro session opened with a
presentation by Denise Gabriele of
Sederma. Ms. Gabriele explained how
sugar molecules, called glycokines,
improve tissular cohesion as measured
with an Aeroflexmeter. This non-invasive, non-touch device, patented by
Sederma, consists of a precisely mounted and positionable nozzle that sends
compressed air to the skin and a laser
beam to follow and record the deformation of the skin surface via CCD and
appropriate computer software. A
cream containing the oligosaccharides
was tested against the vehicle, with
twice daily application for two months.
In addition to the Aeroflexmeter-based
measurements, the Sederma team also
investigated skin elasticity, moisturization, skin surface smoothness and cutaneous barrier (TEWL) using standard
techniques such as a Corneometer and
MoistureMeter-D. According to Ms.
Gabriele, the Aeroflexmeter enabled
Sederma researchers to obtain images
from which new parameters such as tissue cohesion and resilience.
Furthermore, a parallel study on 65
persons of various age groups confirmed
that these parameters correlate well
Another member of the Croda/
Sederma team, Karl Lintner, PhD.,
described in-vitro studies of cellular
senescence based on Stress Induced
Premature Senescence (SIPS). These
SIPS methods include monolayer cell
culture studies, fibroblast lifespan and
DNA arrays to measure gene activity, as
well as ex vivo studies on human skin
explants. Dr. Lintner advised that
although SIPS obtained by culturing
Society of Cosmetic Chemists Honors Des Goddard
IN DECEMBER 2007, the industry was saddened by the death of
E. Desmond Goddard, an expert in the area of polymer, colloid
and surface science. At the time of his death, Dr. Goddard had
been a member of the Society for more than 30 years and had been
honored with numerous awards including the SCC Literature
Award (1993) and the Maison G. deNavarre Award (1994).
As a tribute to Dr. Goddard, the Society devoted an entire program in his memory on polymers and surfactants. Wil Hemker of
The University of Akron Research Foundation and Linda Rhein of
Bayer Health Care moderated the sessions.
In a paper devoted to the science of polymer surfactant interaction, Susan Jordan from The Dow Chemical Company pointed out
that, polymer/surfactant interactions could be fine-tuned for specific performance with different types of hair. By changing the
polymer structure, which also included charge density, its
hydrophobicity character, and molecular weight, specific conditioning properties could be customized. When molecular weight
was significantly increased, it improved wet combing, which was
further improved when charge density was lowered. Silicone deposition was enhanced when either molecular weight or charge
density were increased. The higher molecular weight polymer
improves bridging of the silicone in the coacervate to assist deposition while the increased charge reduced looping on the surface
to direct the silicone to the hair and also hold hair in its place.
Polyquaternium 67 (hydrophobe modified polyquaternium 10)
further improved both wet combing and also silicone deposition.
During the afternoon session, James Gruber discussed work
conducted at Amerchol Corp. in collaboration with Dr. Goddard.
Dr. Gruber is currently the director of research at Arch Personal
Care exploring new technologies relative to hair and skin. A four-year collaboration between Drs. Gruber and Goddard resulted in
co-editing of a book “Principles of Polymer Science and Technology
in Personal Care” published by Marcel Dekker. The work involved
using fluoroscence to study both silicone deposition and cationic
polymer deposition. Dr. Gruber added that originally using radio-labeled polyquaternium- 10, Dr. Goddard elicited and identified
the important factors that influence the direct deposition of the
cationic polymer on the hair including such things as cationic
charge, molecular weight and surfactant type. The process of coacervation has evolved as the most basic mechanism for controlling
deposition of colloidal suspensions in shampoo products. He further added that Dr. Goddard also demonstrated studies that were
conducted to look at the rheological influence of a macro-coacer-vate made from polyquaternium- 10 and sodium lauryl sulfate
(SLS), in order to better understand the mechanisms of deposition. Dr. Goddard’s pioneering work with PQ- 10 further supported by Dr. Gruber’s efforts to examine the properties of PQ- 10 has
formed the corner stone of the two-in-one conditioning shampoos
exemplified by well known brands such as Pantene, Head and
Shoulder, Fructis by L’Oréal, Johnson & Johnson Baby shampoo.
James McCaulley of Eastman Chemical Company explained the
properties and applications of water dispersible sulfopolyesters.
These synthetic, anionic polymers function as fixatives in hair
styling products, dispersants in pigmented cosmetics, secondary
emulsifiers in creams and lotions and water-resistant film formers in sunscreens. The physical properties of sulfoployester films
can easily be modified with cosmetically acceptable plasticizers
such as glycerin, triacetin and triethyl citrate. The extended family of water-dispersible sulfopolyesters offers a wide latitude in
customizing polymer properties to satisfy requirements of many
Also during the afternoon session, Robert Lochhead of the
University of Southern Mississippi presented a paper on cationic
hydroxyethylcellulose. Using a high-throughput screening
method, the authors studied the effects of all possible addition
orders for the three-component system (polyelectrolyte, surfactant, salt) for a series of polyquaternium- 10 polymers with differing molecular weight and charge substitution.
The authors also examined the effect of salt concentration on
interactions between oppositely charged polymer and surfactant,
relative to polymer charge substitution, over a range of surfactant
concentrations encompassing the CMC and substantially greater
than the CMC. The authors concluded that the interactions
between low charge substituted polyquaternium- 10 and oppositely charged surfactant are an interaction of salt which differs
depending upon concentration regime of surfactant and polymer,
whereas the interaction between high charge substituted
polyquaternium- 10 and oppositely charged surfactant persist and
extend over a broader compositional range in the presence of salt
up to 130mm.